Article 3220

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Zhirov Nikolay Anatol'evich, Candidate of historical sciences, associate professor, sub-department of history and historical and cultural heritage, Yelets State University named after I. A. Bunin (28.1 Kommunarov street, Yelets, Lipetsk region, Russia), E-mail: 

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Background. The article is devoted to the study of the causes of the protest movement in the village in the beginning of the 20th century. Within the framework of the problems, the distribution of the agrarian movement in the Orel province and Yeletsky district, interaction of local authorities with the peasant society in the framework of the agrarian policy of the tsarist government is considered. Within the framework of the problem the demographic development of the village, agrarian policy are considered P. A. Stolypin, in particular the resettlement of peasants in Siberia and the far East. The main purpose of the work is to study the causes of the protest movement in rural areas in the early twentieth century. On the example of the Orel province, in particular the Yelets district, the interaction of local authorities with the peasant community in the framework of the agrarian policy of the tsarist government.
Materials and methods. The main sources for the study of socio-economic changes in the Russian countryside of the designated period were statistical collections, surveys of provinces, reporting records of police, a set of materials of provincial and County institutions. Complex study of the archives materials was made by both traditional scientific methods (systemic analysis, structural approach, retrospective approach, etc.) and the new ones, such as civilization approach and following from it theory of agrarian society modernization.
Results. The agrarian movement during the First Russian revolution exposed the crisis of the existing system of land ownership and land use in the country. The peasantry, wanting a fair distribution of land resources, could not always achieve this by legislation. In extreme conditions (for example, crop failure in 1905), not finding support and understanding of the complexity of the situation from the state, the villagers in despair deliberately suppressed the law, referring to the usual legal norms that meet their ideas of justice.
Conclusions. The main result can be the conclusion about the socio-economic origins of the revolutionary events of 1905–1907 in Russia. Agrarian reforms in the framework of the Stolypin reform only partially solved the land issue, and the resettlement policy was ineffective due to the rapid population growth in the provinces of Central Russia in the early twentieth century. 

Key words

peasantry, agrarian policy, resettlement, revolution, Central Russia 


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